Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (PBUH), 5th infallible Imam of Islamic Ummah

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Tuesday, 23 October 2012


imam muhammed baqirThe Fifth Infallible Imam of the Shiite Muslims, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir(A.S.), "The Initiator of Sciences and the Heir of the Knowledge of the Prophets" was martyred by poisoning on the seventh day of the month of Zee al-Hajjah in the year 114 Hijrah in the holy city of Madinah by the ruling

Martyrdom Anniversary of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (PBUH)

Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.)

Father:Imam Ali al-Sajjad(A.S.)
Mother:Umme Abdullah,the daughter of Imam Hasan(A.S.)
Kunniyat(Patronymic);Abu Jafar.
Laqab(Title):Al-Baqir
Birth:The Holy Imam(A.S.) was born in the holy city of Madina on first day of the month of Rajab in the year 57 A.H.
Martydom:The Holy Imam(A.S.) was martyred in Madina by poisoning in the year 114 A.H. and was buried at Baqi cemetery beside his holy father.

The Birth of Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.)
The members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, received the baby with much rejoicing and pleasure. They were very happy with him, for he was in whom the elements of the two grandsons (of the Prophet), al-Hasan and al-Husayn , mixed. Those noble origins through which Allah strengthened the Arabs and the Moslems mixed in him, too. As for the noble backbones and the pure from which he branched, they are:

His Mother
As for his mother, she was a pure chaste woman. She was Fatima, the daughter of Imam al-Hasan, the Lord of the youth of Heaven. She was given the kunya of Umm 'Abd Allah (the mother of 'Abd Allah)(Thahdhib al-Lugha wa al-Asma' vol. 1, p. 87. Ibn Khullakan, Wafayat al-A'yan, vol. 3, p. 384. Al-Mahbar, p. 57. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 60. A'yan al-Shi'a, 1/4/464).
She was among the Hashimite women. Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin, peace be on him, called her al-Siddiqa (the very truthful one).(Abu al-Hasan al-'Amili, Diya' al-Amilin, vol. 2. Al-Dur al-Nazim, serial 2879).
Concerning her Imam Abu 'Abd Allah al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, said : "She was very truthful. No one in the family of al-Hasan looked like her.(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 469).
It is enough for her highness that she was part of the plant of the sweet basil of the Apostle of Allah (i. e. Imam al-Hasan), and that she grew up "in the houses which Allah permitted to be exalted and that His name may be remembered in them."She brought up Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, in her pure lap. She poured upon him rays of her pure soul. She fed him with her noble ideas that became part of his qualities.

His Father
His father Imam Zayn al-Abidin(A.S.) was the Lord of the prostrators (in worship) and ornament of the worshipers. He was the best of all the Moslem figures in jurisprudence, knowledge, and religious piety. We will mention a brief study on his affairs in the following researches.

The Great Baby
The world shone on the birthday of the pure Ima`m (Mohammed al-Ba`qir). The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, had given good news to him before his birth. The members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, waited for him impatiently. That is because he was among the Ima`ms of Moslems. Namely the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, nominated those Ima`ms.
He made them leaders for his community and related them to the Koran. Ima`m Mohammed al-Ba`qir was born in Medina, on the third day of the month of Safar, in the year 56 A. H.1 It was said (that he was) on Friday, during the early days of the month of Rajab.( Dala'il al-Imama, p. 94. Farid Wajjdi, Da'irat al-Ma'arif, vol. 3, p. 563).
He was born three years before his grandfather, Ima`m Husayn, peace be on him, was killed. (Ibn al-Wardi, Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 184. Akhbar al-Duwal, p. 111. Ibn Khulakan, Wafayat al-A'yan, vol. 3, p. 314).
It was said (that he was born) four years, as he, peace be on him, said, (before the martyrdom oh his grandfather). (Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 60).
It was also said (that he was born) two years and some months (before the murder of his grandfather). 1The last date is unusual. No one accepts it.
The religious rituals such as adhan and iqama in his ears were performed for him when he was born. Other rites were also performed for him on the seventh day of his birth: His hair was shaved. The weight of his cut hair in sliver was given to the needy as alms. A ram was sacrificed for him and was given to the poor as alms.
He was born during the time of Mu'a`wiya. At that time the Islamic countries were full of oppression. Moreover, they were full of disasters and misfortunes. That was because of the oppression of Mu'a`wiya and the injustice of his governors who spread terrorism and oppression in the country. Ima`m al-Ba`qir talked about that dreadful injustice. We will mention his speech in this book.

His Name
His grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, named him Mohammed. He also gave him the Kunya of al-Ba`qir. That was ten years before al-Ba`qir was born. That was among the Prophet's prophecies, as some researchers said. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, knew from the unseen that his grandson would do such as proclaiming knowledge among his community. Thus, he gave good news to his community about him. He also sent him his greetings through the great Companion (of the Prophet), Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri. We will mention that in the following (chapters).

His Kunya
He had only one kunya. It was Abu` Ja'far. He was called by the name of his son, Ja'far al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, who renewed the life of this community and split open the fountains of wisdom in the earth.

His Nick-Names
As for his nick-names, they indicate the qualities of his great character and his high inclinations. They are as follows:
1. Al-Amin (the trusted one).
2. Al-Shabih (the one who was like the Prophet , may Allah bless him and his family).( Al-Dur al-Nazim fi Manaqib al-A'imma. Diya' al-Amilin, vol. 2. A'yan al-Shi'a, 1/2/464).
3. Al-Sha`kir (the grateful one).
4. Al-Ha`di (the one who guides).
5. Al-Sa`bir (the patient one).
6. Al-Sha`hid (the proof).(Jannat al-Khuld. Nasikh al-Tawarikh).
7. Al-Ba`qir (the one who split open knowledge). (Tadhkirat al-Huffaz, vol. 1, p. 124. Nazhat al-Jalis, vol. 2, p. 36. Mirr'at al-Jinan, vol.1, p. 247. Farid Wajjdi, Da'irat al-Ma'arif, vol.3, p. 563).
This is the most famous nick-name of his. He and his son, Ima`m al-Sa`diq, were given the nick-name of al-Ba`qirayn (the two ones who split open knowledge). They were also given the nick-name of al-Sa`diqayn (the two truthful ones).( Shaykh al-Turayhi, Jami'al-Maqal).
The historians and the biographers of the Ima`m have unanimously agreed on that he was given the nick-name of al-Ba`qir because he split open knowledge. Namely, he studied knowledge in detail. Thus, he understood its origin and its hidden (branches).( Ayun al-Akhbar wa Funun al-Athar, p. 213. 'Umdat al-Talib, p. 183).
Concerning him, Ima`m al-Reza said:
"O (you) who split open knowledge (making it available) to the people of piety and the best of those who seek to answer the call of the Exalted.
( Jawhart al-Kalam fi Madh al-Sada al--A'lam, p. 133).
It is as if that the people called him al-Ba`qir because of his great knowledge and his many sciences. It was also said that he was given the nick-name of al-Ba`qir because of his many prostrations (in worship). Thus, he split open his forehead.(Mir'at al-Zaman fi Tawarikh al-A'yan, vol. 5, p. 78).
Moreover, he was given the nick-name (of al-Ba`qir) because of these words of his:
"The truth called me for help after the untruth had gathered it in its abdomen. So, I split open its flank and brought out the truth from its hiding, so it appeared and spread after it had been hidden.(Mir'at al-Zaman fi Tawarikh al-A'yan, vol. 5, p. 78).
However, the first meaning is the most famous with the historians.

The Greetings of the Prophet to al-Baqir
The historians and the narrators have unanimously agreed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, sent his greetings to his grandson, al-Ba`qir, through the great companion, Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri. Thus, Ja`bir was impatiently waiting for his birth to give him the message of his grandfather. When the Ima`m was born and became a grown-up, Ja`bir met him and gave him the greetings of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. The historians have reported that in various ways. The following are some of them:
1. Aba`n b. Taghlub reported on the authority of Abi 'Abd Allah, peace be on him, who said: "Indeed Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri was the last of the surviving Companions of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family. He devoted himself to us, we, the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt). He sat at the place of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family. He wore a black turban.
He called out:' O you who will split open knowledge (baqir)! O You who will split open knowledge!' Thus, the people of Medina said: 'Ja`bir is hallucinating!' So, he (Ja`bir) said:'By Allah, I have never hallucinated. However, I heard the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, say:'Indeed, you will meet a man who belongs to me. His name is similar to mine. His qualities are similar to mine. He will split open knowledge thoroughly.
'These words have motivated me to say what I say.' He (Abi Abd Allah) said: "One day while Ja`bir was walking through some streets of Medina, he passed by a street. Mohammed b. 'Ali (al-Ba`qir) was in the street. When he looked at him he said: 'O boy, come.' The boy came. then Ja`bir said to the boy: 'Turn back.'
The boy turned back. Then Ja`bir said: "By him in whose hand is my soul, (they are) the qualities of the Apostle of Allah. O Boy, what is your name?"The boy replied: "My name is Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn."Ja`bir kissed his head and said: 'May my farther and mother be ransom for you, your grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, sends you his greetings.' Abi 'Abd Allah said: 'Mohammed came back frightened to his father and told him about what had happened. His father said to him: 'My little boy, has Ja`bir done it ?' Mohammed replied:'Yes.' His father said: 'Do not leave your house, my little boy.(Usul al-Kafi, vol.1, pp. 496-470. Al-Kashi, Rijal, pp. 27-28).
As for the contents of this report, they are as follows:
A. The qualities and features of Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, were similar to those of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family.
B. It was the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, named his grandson Mohammed and gave him the nick-name of al-Ba`qir. (The Prophet told the People that Ima`m Mohammed al-Ba`qir) would split open knowledge completely.
C. Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin, peace be on him, feared for the safety of his son when Ja`bir reported the tradition of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, concerning him. That is because the Umayyad government imposed an intense observation on Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin. It counted his breaths against him. It wanted to know who would succeed him to punish him severely. So, the Ima`m, peace be on him, wanted the affair of his son to be secret lest the Umayyads should mistreat him or subject him to misfortunes.
2. Ibn 'Asa`kir reported that Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin, peace be on him, and his son, al-Ba`qir came to Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri. Ja`bir asked him: "Son of the Apostle of Allah, who is with you?""My son, Mohammed, is with me,"replied Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin. Ja`bir embraced Mohammed. Then he wept and said: "My death is at hand. Mohammed, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, sends you his greetings."
"What is that?"asked Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin. Ja`bir replied: "I heard Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, say to al-Husayn b. 'Ali: 'A son will be born for this grandson of mine. The son will be the Lord of worshipers. On the Day of Judgment, a caller will call:'Let the Lord of worshipers stand up. So, 'Ali b. al-Husayn will rise. A son will be born for 'Ali b. al-Husayn. The son will be called Mohammed. Ja`bir, when you see him, give him my greetings. Ja`bir, know that al-Mahdi will be among his sons. Know, Ja`bir, that you will stay for a short time after him.(Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh, vol 51, p. 41).
3. Taj al-Din b. Mohammed, the head of Aleppo , reported on the authority of Ima`m Mohammed al-Ba`qir, who said: "I came to Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah and greeted him. He said to me: 'Who are you?' That was after he had become blind. I said to him: 'Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn.' He said: 'May my father and mother be ransom for you, come nearer to me.' I came nearer to him. He kissed my hand, and then he stooped down to my foot to kiss it.
However, I pulled it from him. Then he said: 'The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, recites his greeting to you.' 'Peace and Allah's mercy and blessings be on the Apostle of Allah,' I said. 'How is that, Ja`bir?' He said:'One day I was with him when he said to me: 'Perhaps you will live until you meet one of my descendants called Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn on whom Allah will bestow light and wisdom. Then recite to him my greetigs.
(Ghayat al-Ikhtisar, p. 64).
4. Salah al-Din al-Safadi said: Ja`bir walked in Medina and said: 'Ba`qir, when will I meet you?' One day he passed through a street in Medina. A female slave gave him the boy who was in her lap. He said to the female slave: 'Who is this?' 'Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn,' she replied. He embraced him, kissed his head and his hands, and then he said: 'My little boy, your grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, sends you his greetings.' Then he said: 'Ba`qir, my death is at hand.' He died at that night.(Al-Wafi bi al-Wafayat, vol. 4, p. 192).
5. Some Isma`'ilis reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said to Ja`bir: "You will meet a son of this son of mine. He appointed at al-Husayn. When you meet him, give him my greetings. Say to him: O you who will split open knowledge, split it completely."Ja`bir did that.( Masa'il Majmu'a mina al-Hada'iq al-'Aliya wa al-Asrar al-Samiya, p. 99).
6. Al-Ha`fiz Nu`r al-Din al-Haythami reported on the authority of Abu` Ja'far, peace be on him, who said: "Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah visited me while I was reading the Book. He said to me: 'Uncover your abdomen.' I uncovered my abdomen. He kissed it, and then he said: 'Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, ordered me to give you his greetings.(Majjma' al-Zawa'id, vol. 1, p. 22).
These are some reports that have unanimously agreed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, ordered Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri to send his greetings to Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, knew from beyond the unseen that his grandson would spread knowledge among people and that he would split open wisdom and light in the earth.

His Features
Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri said that his features were similar to those of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.( Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 469).
His morals were also similar to the Prophet's high ones that distinguished him from the other prophets.
Some contemporary people have described Imam al-Baqir as follows: He was a man of medium height. He was brown.( Akhbar al-Duwal, p. 111. Jawhart al-Kalam fi Madh al-Sada al-A'lam, 132).
He had soft skin with moles. He had a thin waist. His voice was good. He always bowed his head.( A'yan al-Shi'a, 1/4/471).

His Early Childhood
Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, was clever and genius during his childhood. The reporters said that Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri, though an old man, came to him, sat before him, and learned from him. Ja`bir admired the Ima`m's abundant knowledge and sciences. Thus, he said: "Ba`qir, you have been given wisdom while you are still a boy.( 'Ilal al-Sharai', p. 234).
The Companions (of the Prophet) knew that the Ima`m was endowed with outstanding merits and abundant knowledge. So, they consulted him concerning the problems which they did not understand. The historians said that a man 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar about a certain problem. However, 'Abd Allah could not answer the problem.
So, he said to the man: "Go to that boy, he pointed at Ima`m al-Ba`qir, ask him, and tell me about his answer."The man went to the Ima`m and asked him. The Ima`m, peace be on him, answered his problem. Thus, the man came back to 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar and told him about the Ima`m's answer. So, the latter admired the Ima`m, saying : "They are the knowledgeable members of the House.( Al-Manaqib, vol. 4, p. 147).
Allah singled out the Ima`ms of the members of the House, peace be on them, with knowledge and outstanding merits. He granted them absolute perfection which He had granted to His prophets and His apostles. The historians said that the Ima`m was nine years of age when he was asked about difficult problems and answered them.

His Solemnity and His Prestige
The features of the Ima`m, peace be on him, represented the solemnity and the prestige of the prophets. Everybody respected and admired him. For example, Qatta`da, the jurist of the people of Basrah, met him. Still his heart trembled because of the Ima`m's solemnity. Thus, he said to him: "I sit before the jurists and b. 'Abba`s. My heart does not tremble because of them as it does because of you.(Ithbat al-Hudat, vol. 5, p. 176).
The Ima`m was the rest of Allah in His earth. Allah bestowed solemnity and prestige on His friends and His lovers. Their qualities appeared in the Ima`m's character. Among those who admired the Ima`m's solemnity was the Moroccan poet, who described the Ima`m, saying:
O you who was the son of him by whose tongue and eloquence people were guided and the revelation was sent down.
The Book talked about his outstanding merits. The Torah and the Bible announced his coming.
Were it not for the cessation of the revelation after Mohammed, we would say: Mohammed was the alternative to his grandfather.
He was similar to him in outstanding merits, but Gabriel did not bring him a message.( Al-Manaqib, vol. 4, p. 181).
The historians reported that nobody saw the Ima`m, peace be on him, laughing. When he laughed, he said: "O Allah, do not detest me.(Safwat al-Saffwa, vol. 2, p. 62. Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 349).
Indeed, he refrained from all that which contradicts solemnity and high character. Among his prominent qualities was that he always praised Allah. We will mention that when we talk about the aspects of his character.

The Inscription of his Ring
As for the inscription of his ring, it was: "All might is for Allah.( Hulyat al-Awliya', vol. 1.3, p. 189).
He wore the ring of his grandfather, Ima`m Husayn, peace be on him, whose inscription was: "Surely Allah attains His purpose.( A'yan al-Shi'a, 1/4/169).
This indicates that he devoted himself to Allah and cleaved to Him strongly.

His Residence
The Ima`m, peace be on him, resided in Medina throughout his
life. He did not leave it for another city. In it, he was the first teacher and great pioneer for scientific cultural movements. He used the Prophetic Mosque as school for him. There he gave his lectures to his students.

Martyrdom of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir(A.S.)

Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, had carried out his immortal message: he had spread knowledge and Islamic manners among people. Then Allah chose him to be His neighbor. He wanted him to enjoy the shade of His mercy and His gardens. He wanted him to be happy through meeting his grandfathers, whopassed the methods of justice and fairness in the earth.

The Imam announced his own Death.
The Ima`m felt the approach of his certain death. So, he hurried to his aunt, Fa`tima daughter of Ima`m al-Husayn, peace be on him. He announced his death to her, saying: "I have completed fifty-eight years.(1. Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 350. In Kashf al-Ghumma, vol. 2, p. 322, it has been reported on the authority of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, peace be on him, who said: [ My father Mohammed al-Baqir, peace be upon him, said] " Ali was killed at the age of fifty-eight, 'Ali b. al-Husayn died at the age fifty-eight. I am fifty-eight years old.).
Fa`tima understood what the Ima`m meant. Her heart melted with sorrows for her nephew. For he was the rest of the members of his family, who were killed by the swords of aggression and error. The Ima`m completed fifty-eighty years full of misfortunes. Those years filled his heart with sorrow and sadness. His father, Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin, and his grand father, Ima`m al-Hasan, peace be on them, departed life at the same age. Thus, the Ima`m felt that he was about to die.

The Martyrdom of the Holy Imam(A.S.)
Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, did not die a natural death. Rather, some sinful persons, who did not believe in Allah and the hereafter, gave him poison to drink. The historians differed over which sinful person who committed such a crime. The following are some of the views:
1. Hisha`m b. al-Hakam gave the Ima`m poison to drink.(Bihar al-Anwar)
This is the most acceptable view. For Hisha`m was the most spiteful person towards the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. His soul was full of malice and hatred towards them. It was he who forced the great martyr, Zayd b. 'Ali, peace be on him, to revolt against him. That was when he scorned and abandoned Zayd. Surely, the great Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, shook the position of this tyrannical person (Hisha`m). That because the Ima`m's knowledge and outstanding merits were famous. So, the Moslems talked about his talents and abilities. Hence, Hisha`m killed the Ima`m to get rid of him. (Akhbar al-Duwal, p. 111)
Ibra`him b. al-Walid gave the Ima`m poison to drink. Sayyid b. Tawu`s thought that Ibra`him b. al-Walid took part in murdering the Ima`m, peace be on him.(Bihar al-Anwar)
This means that Ibra`him helped other persons to murder the Ima`m, peace be on him.
Some references have ignored the name of the person who assassinated the Ima`m, peace be on him. They have only mentioned that the Ima`m died of poisoning.( Nur al-Abbsar, vol. 131. Ibn Tolan, al-A'imma al-Ithna 'Ashar, p. 281)
These are some of the views mentioned concerning murdering the Ima`m, peace be on him, with poison.

Reasons for the Murder of the Ima`m
The Umayyads murdered the Ima`m, peace be on him. The reasons for that are as follows:

1. The Imam's high Character
Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, had the highest character in the Islamic world. Moslems have unanimously greed on his high character. They have admitted his outstanding merits. All Moslem religious scholars from all Moslem countries came to him to learn his sciences and his morals. For the Ima`m learned that from his grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.
The Ima`m, peace be on him, possessed the sentiments of the people. Thus, they admired and respected him. For the Ima`m was the most prominent figure in the family of the Prophet, may
Allah bless him and his family.
Hence, the Ima`m's high social rank displeased the Umayyads. Accordingly, they decided to murder him to get rid of him.

2. The Events of Damascus
Among the reasons that moved the Umayyads to kill the Ima`m, peace be on him, were the events the Ima`m faced in Damascus. These events are as follow:
A. The Ima`m exceeded the Umayyads and others in shooting. That was when Hisha`m summoned the Ima`m to compete with the Umayyds and others for shooting. Hisha`m thought the Ima`m would fail in hitting the target. Thus, he would be able to use the Ima`m's failure as means to degrade the importance of the Ima`m and to mock him before the Syrians. However, the Ima`m shot and hit the target several times. The people had never seen such skillfulness in the world of shooting. Hisha`m was full of anger. So, he decided to murder the Ima`m from that moment.
B. The Ima`m debated with Hisha`m on the affairs of the Ima`mate. The Ima`m defeated Hisha`m. So, the latter was full of malice towards the former.
C. The Ima`m debated with the scholar of the Christians on certain affairs. The Ima`m also defeated the scholar. So, the Syrians were busy talking about the Ima`m's victory over the Christian scholar. We have mentioned these matters in detail in the previous chapters.

Imam al-Baqir(A.S.) designated al-Sadiq(A.S.)
Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, designated his son al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, as an Ima`m. For al-Sa`diq was the pride of the world. He was the pioneer of culture and science in Islam. His father designated him to be an Ima`m and successor and general authority for the community after him. He said to his followers that it was incumbent on them to follow and obey his son.
Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, lauded his son, Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him. He gave an explicit designation for his Ima`mte. Abu` al-Saba`h al-Kina`ni reported. He said: [Abu` Ja'far Mohammed looked towards his son Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq), peace be on him, and said (to us): "Do you see that man? He is one of those of whom Allah, the Mighty and High, said: We wish to grant a favor to those who have been humiliated in the land and We will make them Ima`ms and inheritors.(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 306)
'Ali b. al-Hakam reported on the authority of Ta`hir, who said: [I was with Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him). When Ja'far (al-Sa`diq) approached, Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir) said:] "Here is the best of creatures.(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 306)

His Testamentary Enjoinments
Ima`m Mohammed al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, gave several enjoinments to his son, Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him. Among them are the following:
1. He said: "Ja'far, I give testamentary enjoinments to you (to treat) my followers well." So, Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, replied: "May I be your ransom, I will make them (know their religion so well) that any man among them in the country will not (have to) ask any one (for advice). (Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 306)
He, peace be on him, enjoined his son to spend (money) on them and to take care of their affairs to make them devote themselves to seek knowledge, to record his traditions, and to spread his sciences and morals among the people.
2. He, peace be on him, enjoined his son al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, to shroud him in the cloak in which he used to perform the prayer.(Safwat al-Safwa, vol. 2, p. 63. Ibn al-Wadi, Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 184. Abi al-Fida', Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 214. Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam, vol. 7)
He wanted that to be a truthful witness with Allah for his great worship and his obedience to Him.
3. He endowed some of his money to some female weepers to weep for him for ten years at Mina.(Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 11, p. 62).
The reason for that is that Mina was the greatest center where Moslems gathered, and that there were many female weepers at it. This would make the Moslems ask about the reason for weeping. They would be told that the Umayyads persecuted and killed Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him. So, the Umayyad would be unable to hide the murder of the Ima`m.
As for the text of his testamentary enjoinments, it was reported by Ima`m Abu` 'Abd Allah al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, who said: [When my father was near to death, he said (to me): "Call witnesses for me." I summoned four men from Quraysh, among them Na`fi', retainer of 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar. (My father said:) "Write this testimony which I bequeath (like) Jacob did to his sons: My sons, Allah has chosen the religion for you. So, do not die except as Moslems.
Mohammed b. 'Ali makes this last testimony to Ja'far b. Mohammed. He orders him to shroud him in his cloak in which he used to perform the Friday prayer, to put his turban on him, to make his grave a square, to raise it the height of four fingers above the ground, and to take his shabby clothes away from him at his burial.
Then he said to the witnesses: "Depart, may Allah have mercy on you.
You"Father," I said to him (after they had gone), "what was in this that there had to be witnesses for it?"
"My son," he answered, "I was unwilling for you to be overcome and for it to be said that no testimony had been mad for him. I wanted you to have proof.
(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 307)

To the Highest Paradise
The poison acted quickly on the body of Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him. So, death approached fast. During his last hours, he gathered all his feelings and sentiments, and cleaved to Allah, the Most High. He began reciting the Holy Koran. He asked Allah's forgiveness. While his tongue busy praising Allah, death came to him. So, his great matchless soul ascended to its Creator after it had enlightened the cultural scientific life in Islam. When the Ima`m died, the most wonderful stage of the Islamic message, which provided the Islamic community with the elements of awareness, development, and prosper, ended.

His Preparation (for Burial)
Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, prepared the holy body for burial. He washed it and shrouded it. He was weeping bitter tears for the missing of his father, who was the best person under the sky in knowledge, outstanding merits, and devoutness.

His Burial
The people carried the great body from al-Hamima. They gathered around it. They were shouting: "There is no god but Allah! Allah is Great!" They were greatly moved to touch the coffin of the Ima`m. They were mentioning the laudable and favors of Ima`m Abu Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him.
Then they reached at Baqi' al-Gharqad. They dug a grave alongside the grave of his father, Zayn al-'Abidin, the greatest Ima`m, peace be on him, and besides his great-uncle, Ima`m al-Hasan, the Lord of the Youth of Heaven, peace be on him. Then Ima`m al-Sa`diq buried his father in his final resting place. He buried with him knowledge, clemency, and kindness to people.
The martyrdom of Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, was the greatest loss for the Muslims then. For they missed the leader, the pioneer, and the guide, who spared no effort to spread knowledge and cultural awareness among Moslems.
The Holy Ima`m, peace be on him, was martyred at the age of 58.

The Year of his Death
It is famous that Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, died in the year 114A.H.

The Muslims condoled Imam al-Sadiq(A.S.)
The Moslems were full of sadness. So, they hurried to Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, to condole with him on the death of his father. Among the condolers was Sa`lim b. Abi Hafsa, who said:
"I said to my companions: 'Wait for me. For I want to go to Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq) to condole with him on the death of his father.' I went to him and condoled with him and said to him:
'To Allah we belong and to Him is our return. By Allah, the one who used to say: 'Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said,' has passed away. He was not asked about what was between him and Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. I have never seen the like of him."
He Sa`lim added: "Ima`m Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq), peace be on him, kept silent for an hour. Then he turned to his companions and said to them: Allah, the Great and Almighty said: 'Some of My servants give part of a date as alms. So, I will grow (the alms) for them, as they grow the foal.'
Then Sa`lim went out. He admired Ima`m Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq), peace be on him. Hence, he turned to his companions and said to them: "I have not seen (any person) more wonderful than this (Ima`m). We regarded as great Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, who used to say without any authority: 'Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said.' Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq), peace be on him, said to me without an authority: 'Allah said.'(Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Amali, p. 125)
Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, took his traditions from his fathers, who took their sciences from their grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.

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Umayyad caliph. The Holy Imam(A.S.) was buried in the Baqi cemetery in the holy city of Madinah.

On this sad and sorrowful occasion we extend our Heartfelt Condolences to all the followers and lovers of Holy Ahlul Bayt (PBUT).

Martyrdom Anniversary of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (PBUH)

Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.)

Father:Imam Ali al-Sajjad(A.S.)
Mother:Umme Abdullah,the daughter of Imam Hasan(A.S.)
Kunniyat(Patronymic);Abu Jafar.
Laqab(Title):Al-Baqir
Birth:The Holy Imam(A.S.) was born in the holy city of Madina on first day of the month of Rajab in the year 57 A.H.
Martydom:The Holy Imam(A.S.) was martyred in Madina by poisoning in the year 114 A.H. and was buried at Baqi cemetery beside his holy father.

The Birth of Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.)
The members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, received the baby with much rejoicing and pleasure. They were very happy with him, for he was in whom the elements of the two grandsons (of the Prophet), al-Hasan and al-Husayn , mixed. Those noble origins through which Allah strengthened the Arabs and the Moslems mixed in him, too. As for the noble backbones and the pure from which he branched, they are:

His Mother
As for his mother, she was a pure chaste woman. She was Fatima, the daughter of Imam al-Hasan, the Lord of the youth of Heaven. She was given the kunya of Umm 'Abd Allah (the mother of 'Abd Allah)(Thahdhib al-Lugha wa al-Asma' vol. 1, p. 87. Ibn Khullakan, Wafayat al-A'yan, vol. 3, p. 384. Al-Mahbar, p. 57. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 60. A'yan al-Shi'a, 1/4/464).
She was among the Hashimite women. Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin, peace be on him, called her al-Siddiqa (the very truthful one).(Abu al-Hasan al-'Amili, Diya' al-Amilin, vol. 2. Al-Dur al-Nazim, serial 2879).
Concerning her Imam Abu 'Abd Allah al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, said : "She was very truthful. No one in the family of al-Hasan looked like her.(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 469).
It is enough for her highness that she was part of the plant of the sweet basil of the Apostle of Allah (i. e. Imam al-Hasan), and that she grew up "in the houses which Allah permitted to be exalted and that His name may be remembered in them."She brought up Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, in her pure lap. She poured upon him rays of her pure soul. She fed him with her noble ideas that became part of his qualities.

His Father
His father Imam Zayn al-Abidin(A.S.) was the Lord of the prostrators (in worship) and ornament of the worshipers. He was the best of all the Moslem figures in jurisprudence, knowledge, and religious piety. We will mention a brief study on his affairs in the following researches.

The Great Baby
The world shone on the birthday of the pure Ima`m (Mohammed al-Ba`qir). The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, had given good news to him before his birth. The members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, waited for him impatiently. That is because he was among the Ima`ms of Moslems. Namely the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, nominated those Ima`ms.
He made them leaders for his community and related them to the Koran. Ima`m Mohammed al-Ba`qir was born in Medina, on the third day of the month of Safar, in the year 56 A. H.1 It was said (that he was) on Friday, during the early days of the month of Rajab.( Dala'il al-Imama, p. 94. Farid Wajjdi, Da'irat al-Ma'arif, vol. 3, p. 563).
He was born three years before his grandfather, Ima`m Husayn, peace be on him, was killed. (Ibn al-Wardi, Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 184. Akhbar al-Duwal, p. 111. Ibn Khulakan, Wafayat al-A'yan, vol. 3, p. 314).
It was said (that he was born) four years, as he, peace be on him, said, (before the martyrdom oh his grandfather). (Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 60).
It was also said (that he was born) two years and some months (before the murder of his grandfather). 1The last date is unusual. No one accepts it.
The religious rituals such as adhan and iqama in his ears were performed for him when he was born. Other rites were also performed for him on the seventh day of his birth: His hair was shaved. The weight of his cut hair in sliver was given to the needy as alms. A ram was sacrificed for him and was given to the poor as alms.
He was born during the time of Mu'a`wiya. At that time the Islamic countries were full of oppression. Moreover, they were full of disasters and misfortunes. That was because of the oppression of Mu'a`wiya and the injustice of his governors who spread terrorism and oppression in the country. Ima`m al-Ba`qir talked about that dreadful injustice. We will mention his speech in this book.

His Name
His grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, named him Mohammed. He also gave him the Kunya of al-Ba`qir. That was ten years before al-Ba`qir was born. That was among the Prophet's prophecies, as some researchers said. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, knew from the unseen that his grandson would do such as proclaiming knowledge among his community. Thus, he gave good news to his community about him. He also sent him his greetings through the great Companion (of the Prophet), Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri. We will mention that in the following (chapters).

His Kunya
He had only one kunya. It was Abu` Ja'far. He was called by the name of his son, Ja'far al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, who renewed the life of this community and split open the fountains of wisdom in the earth.

His Nick-Names
As for his nick-names, they indicate the qualities of his great character and his high inclinations. They are as follows:
1. Al-Amin (the trusted one).
2. Al-Shabih (the one who was like the Prophet , may Allah bless him and his family).( Al-Dur al-Nazim fi Manaqib al-A'imma. Diya' al-Amilin, vol. 2. A'yan al-Shi'a, 1/2/464).
3. Al-Sha`kir (the grateful one).
4. Al-Ha`di (the one who guides).
5. Al-Sa`bir (the patient one).
6. Al-Sha`hid (the proof).(Jannat al-Khuld. Nasikh al-Tawarikh).
7. Al-Ba`qir (the one who split open knowledge). (Tadhkirat al-Huffaz, vol. 1, p. 124. Nazhat al-Jalis, vol. 2, p. 36. Mirr'at al-Jinan, vol.1, p. 247. Farid Wajjdi, Da'irat al-Ma'arif, vol.3, p. 563).
This is the most famous nick-name of his. He and his son, Ima`m al-Sa`diq, were given the nick-name of al-Ba`qirayn (the two ones who split open knowledge). They were also given the nick-name of al-Sa`diqayn (the two truthful ones).( Shaykh al-Turayhi, Jami'al-Maqal).
The historians and the biographers of the Ima`m have unanimously agreed on that he was given the nick-name of al-Ba`qir because he split open knowledge. Namely, he studied knowledge in detail. Thus, he understood its origin and its hidden (branches).( Ayun al-Akhbar wa Funun al-Athar, p. 213. 'Umdat al-Talib, p. 183).
Concerning him, Ima`m al-Reza said:
"O (you) who split open knowledge (making it available) to the people of piety and the best of those who seek to answer the call of the Exalted.
( Jawhart al-Kalam fi Madh al-Sada al--A'lam, p. 133).
It is as if that the people called him al-Ba`qir because of his great knowledge and his many sciences. It was also said that he was given the nick-name of al-Ba`qir because of his many prostrations (in worship). Thus, he split open his forehead.(Mir'at al-Zaman fi Tawarikh al-A'yan, vol. 5, p. 78).
Moreover, he was given the nick-name (of al-Ba`qir) because of these words of his:
"The truth called me for help after the untruth had gathered it in its abdomen. So, I split open its flank and brought out the truth from its hiding, so it appeared and spread after it had been hidden.(Mir'at al-Zaman fi Tawarikh al-A'yan, vol. 5, p. 78).
However, the first meaning is the most famous with the historians.

The Greetings of the Prophet to al-Baqir
The historians and the narrators have unanimously agreed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, sent his greetings to his grandson, al-Ba`qir, through the great companion, Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri. Thus, Ja`bir was impatiently waiting for his birth to give him the message of his grandfather. When the Ima`m was born and became a grown-up, Ja`bir met him and gave him the greetings of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. The historians have reported that in various ways. The following are some of them:
1. Aba`n b. Taghlub reported on the authority of Abi 'Abd Allah, peace be on him, who said: "Indeed Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri was the last of the surviving Companions of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family. He devoted himself to us, we, the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt). He sat at the place of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family. He wore a black turban.
He called out:' O you who will split open knowledge (baqir)! O You who will split open knowledge!' Thus, the people of Medina said: 'Ja`bir is hallucinating!' So, he (Ja`bir) said:'By Allah, I have never hallucinated. However, I heard the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, say:'Indeed, you will meet a man who belongs to me. His name is similar to mine. His qualities are similar to mine. He will split open knowledge thoroughly.
'These words have motivated me to say what I say.' He (Abi Abd Allah) said: "One day while Ja`bir was walking through some streets of Medina, he passed by a street. Mohammed b. 'Ali (al-Ba`qir) was in the street. When he looked at him he said: 'O boy, come.' The boy came. then Ja`bir said to the boy: 'Turn back.'
The boy turned back. Then Ja`bir said: "By him in whose hand is my soul, (they are) the qualities of the Apostle of Allah. O Boy, what is your name?"The boy replied: "My name is Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn."Ja`bir kissed his head and said: 'May my farther and mother be ransom for you, your grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, sends you his greetings.' Abi 'Abd Allah said: 'Mohammed came back frightened to his father and told him about what had happened. His father said to him: 'My little boy, has Ja`bir done it ?' Mohammed replied:'Yes.' His father said: 'Do not leave your house, my little boy.(Usul al-Kafi, vol.1, pp. 496-470. Al-Kashi, Rijal, pp. 27-28).
As for the contents of this report, they are as follows:
A. The qualities and features of Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, were similar to those of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family.
B. It was the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, named his grandson Mohammed and gave him the nick-name of al-Ba`qir. (The Prophet told the People that Ima`m Mohammed al-Ba`qir) would split open knowledge completely.
C. Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin, peace be on him, feared for the safety of his son when Ja`bir reported the tradition of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, concerning him. That is because the Umayyad government imposed an intense observation on Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin. It counted his breaths against him. It wanted to know who would succeed him to punish him severely. So, the Ima`m, peace be on him, wanted the affair of his son to be secret lest the Umayyads should mistreat him or subject him to misfortunes.
2. Ibn 'Asa`kir reported that Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin, peace be on him, and his son, al-Ba`qir came to Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri. Ja`bir asked him: "Son of the Apostle of Allah, who is with you?""My son, Mohammed, is with me,"replied Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin. Ja`bir embraced Mohammed. Then he wept and said: "My death is at hand. Mohammed, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, sends you his greetings."
"What is that?"asked Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin. Ja`bir replied: "I heard Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, say to al-Husayn b. 'Ali: 'A son will be born for this grandson of mine. The son will be the Lord of worshipers. On the Day of Judgment, a caller will call:'Let the Lord of worshipers stand up. So, 'Ali b. al-Husayn will rise. A son will be born for 'Ali b. al-Husayn. The son will be called Mohammed. Ja`bir, when you see him, give him my greetings. Ja`bir, know that al-Mahdi will be among his sons. Know, Ja`bir, that you will stay for a short time after him.(Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh, vol 51, p. 41).
3. Taj al-Din b. Mohammed, the head of Aleppo , reported on the authority of Ima`m Mohammed al-Ba`qir, who said: "I came to Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah and greeted him. He said to me: 'Who are you?' That was after he had become blind. I said to him: 'Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn.' He said: 'May my father and mother be ransom for you, come nearer to me.' I came nearer to him. He kissed my hand, and then he stooped down to my foot to kiss it.
However, I pulled it from him. Then he said: 'The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, recites his greeting to you.' 'Peace and Allah's mercy and blessings be on the Apostle of Allah,' I said. 'How is that, Ja`bir?' He said:'One day I was with him when he said to me: 'Perhaps you will live until you meet one of my descendants called Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn on whom Allah will bestow light and wisdom. Then recite to him my greetigs.
(Ghayat al-Ikhtisar, p. 64).
4. Salah al-Din al-Safadi said: Ja`bir walked in Medina and said: 'Ba`qir, when will I meet you?' One day he passed through a street in Medina. A female slave gave him the boy who was in her lap. He said to the female slave: 'Who is this?' 'Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn,' she replied. He embraced him, kissed his head and his hands, and then he said: 'My little boy, your grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, sends you his greetings.' Then he said: 'Ba`qir, my death is at hand.' He died at that night.(Al-Wafi bi al-Wafayat, vol. 4, p. 192).
5. Some Isma`'ilis reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said to Ja`bir: "You will meet a son of this son of mine. He appointed at al-Husayn. When you meet him, give him my greetings. Say to him: O you who will split open knowledge, split it completely."Ja`bir did that.( Masa'il Majmu'a mina al-Hada'iq al-'Aliya wa al-Asrar al-Samiya, p. 99).
6. Al-Ha`fiz Nu`r al-Din al-Haythami reported on the authority of Abu` Ja'far, peace be on him, who said: "Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah visited me while I was reading the Book. He said to me: 'Uncover your abdomen.' I uncovered my abdomen. He kissed it, and then he said: 'Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, ordered me to give you his greetings.(Majjma' al-Zawa'id, vol. 1, p. 22).
These are some reports that have unanimously agreed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, ordered Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri to send his greetings to Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, knew from beyond the unseen that his grandson would spread knowledge among people and that he would split open wisdom and light in the earth.

His Features
Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri said that his features were similar to those of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.( Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 469).
His morals were also similar to the Prophet's high ones that distinguished him from the other prophets.
Some contemporary people have described Imam al-Baqir as follows: He was a man of medium height. He was brown.( Akhbar al-Duwal, p. 111. Jawhart al-Kalam fi Madh al-Sada al-A'lam, 132).
He had soft skin with moles. He had a thin waist. His voice was good. He always bowed his head.( A'yan al-Shi'a, 1/4/471).

His Early Childhood
Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, was clever and genius during his childhood. The reporters said that Ja`bir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansa`ri, though an old man, came to him, sat before him, and learned from him. Ja`bir admired the Ima`m's abundant knowledge and sciences. Thus, he said: "Ba`qir, you have been given wisdom while you are still a boy.( 'Ilal al-Sharai', p. 234).
The Companions (of the Prophet) knew that the Ima`m was endowed with outstanding merits and abundant knowledge. So, they consulted him concerning the problems which they did not understand. The historians said that a man 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar about a certain problem. However, 'Abd Allah could not answer the problem.
So, he said to the man: "Go to that boy, he pointed at Ima`m al-Ba`qir, ask him, and tell me about his answer."The man went to the Ima`m and asked him. The Ima`m, peace be on him, answered his problem. Thus, the man came back to 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar and told him about the Ima`m's answer. So, the latter admired the Ima`m, saying : "They are the knowledgeable members of the House.( Al-Manaqib, vol. 4, p. 147).
Allah singled out the Ima`ms of the members of the House, peace be on them, with knowledge and outstanding merits. He granted them absolute perfection which He had granted to His prophets and His apostles. The historians said that the Ima`m was nine years of age when he was asked about difficult problems and answered them.

His Solemnity and His Prestige
The features of the Ima`m, peace be on him, represented the solemnity and the prestige of the prophets. Everybody respected and admired him. For example, Qatta`da, the jurist of the people of Basrah, met him. Still his heart trembled because of the Ima`m's solemnity. Thus, he said to him: "I sit before the jurists and b. 'Abba`s. My heart does not tremble because of them as it does because of you.(Ithbat al-Hudat, vol. 5, p. 176).
The Ima`m was the rest of Allah in His earth. Allah bestowed solemnity and prestige on His friends and His lovers. Their qualities appeared in the Ima`m's character. Among those who admired the Ima`m's solemnity was the Moroccan poet, who described the Ima`m, saying:
O you who was the son of him by whose tongue and eloquence people were guided and the revelation was sent down.
The Book talked about his outstanding merits. The Torah and the Bible announced his coming.
Were it not for the cessation of the revelation after Mohammed, we would say: Mohammed was the alternative to his grandfather.
He was similar to him in outstanding merits, but Gabriel did not bring him a message.( Al-Manaqib, vol. 4, p. 181).
The historians reported that nobody saw the Ima`m, peace be on him, laughing. When he laughed, he said: "O Allah, do not detest me.(Safwat al-Saffwa, vol. 2, p. 62. Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 349).
Indeed, he refrained from all that which contradicts solemnity and high character. Among his prominent qualities was that he always praised Allah. We will mention that when we talk about the aspects of his character.

The Inscription of his Ring
As for the inscription of his ring, it was: "All might is for Allah.( Hulyat al-Awliya', vol. 1.3, p. 189).
He wore the ring of his grandfather, Ima`m Husayn, peace be on him, whose inscription was: "Surely Allah attains His purpose.( A'yan al-Shi'a, 1/4/169).
This indicates that he devoted himself to Allah and cleaved to Him strongly.

His Residence
The Ima`m, peace be on him, resided in Medina throughout his
life. He did not leave it for another city. In it, he was the first teacher and great pioneer for scientific cultural movements. He used the Prophetic Mosque as school for him. There he gave his lectures to his students.

Martyrdom of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir(A.S.)

Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, had carried out his immortal message: he had spread knowledge and Islamic manners among people. Then Allah chose him to be His neighbor. He wanted him to enjoy the shade of His mercy and His gardens. He wanted him to be happy through meeting his grandfathers, whopassed the methods of justice and fairness in the earth.

The Imam announced his own Death.
The Ima`m felt the approach of his certain death. So, he hurried to his aunt, Fa`tima daughter of Ima`m al-Husayn, peace be on him. He announced his death to her, saying: "I have completed fifty-eight years.(1. Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 350. In Kashf al-Ghumma, vol. 2, p. 322, it has been reported on the authority of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, peace be on him, who said: [ My father Mohammed al-Baqir, peace be upon him, said] " Ali was killed at the age of fifty-eight, 'Ali b. al-Husayn died at the age fifty-eight. I am fifty-eight years old.).
Fa`tima understood what the Ima`m meant. Her heart melted with sorrows for her nephew. For he was the rest of the members of his family, who were killed by the swords of aggression and error. The Ima`m completed fifty-eighty years full of misfortunes. Those years filled his heart with sorrow and sadness. His father, Ima`m Zayn al-'Abidin, and his grand father, Ima`m al-Hasan, peace be on them, departed life at the same age. Thus, the Ima`m felt that he was about to die.

The Martyrdom of the Holy Imam(A.S.)
Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, did not die a natural death. Rather, some sinful persons, who did not believe in Allah and the hereafter, gave him poison to drink. The historians differed over which sinful person who committed such a crime. The following are some of the views:
1. Hisha`m b. al-Hakam gave the Ima`m poison to drink.(Bihar al-Anwar)
This is the most acceptable view. For Hisha`m was the most spiteful person towards the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. His soul was full of malice and hatred towards them. It was he who forced the great martyr, Zayd b. 'Ali, peace be on him, to revolt against him. That was when he scorned and abandoned Zayd. Surely, the great Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, shook the position of this tyrannical person (Hisha`m). That because the Ima`m's knowledge and outstanding merits were famous. So, the Moslems talked about his talents and abilities. Hence, Hisha`m killed the Ima`m to get rid of him. (Akhbar al-Duwal, p. 111)
Ibra`him b. al-Walid gave the Ima`m poison to drink. Sayyid b. Tawu`s thought that Ibra`him b. al-Walid took part in murdering the Ima`m, peace be on him.(Bihar al-Anwar)
This means that Ibra`him helped other persons to murder the Ima`m, peace be on him.
Some references have ignored the name of the person who assassinated the Ima`m, peace be on him. They have only mentioned that the Ima`m died of poisoning.( Nur al-Abbsar, vol. 131. Ibn Tolan, al-A'imma al-Ithna 'Ashar, p. 281)
These are some of the views mentioned concerning murdering the Ima`m, peace be on him, with poison.

Reasons for the Murder of the Ima`m
The Umayyads murdered the Ima`m, peace be on him. The reasons for that are as follows:

1. The Imam's high Character
Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, had the highest character in the Islamic world. Moslems have unanimously greed on his high character. They have admitted his outstanding merits. All Moslem religious scholars from all Moslem countries came to him to learn his sciences and his morals. For the Ima`m learned that from his grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.
The Ima`m, peace be on him, possessed the sentiments of the people. Thus, they admired and respected him. For the Ima`m was the most prominent figure in the family of the Prophet, may
Allah bless him and his family.
Hence, the Ima`m's high social rank displeased the Umayyads. Accordingly, they decided to murder him to get rid of him.

2. The Events of Damascus
Among the reasons that moved the Umayyads to kill the Ima`m, peace be on him, were the events the Ima`m faced in Damascus. These events are as follow:
A. The Ima`m exceeded the Umayyads and others in shooting. That was when Hisha`m summoned the Ima`m to compete with the Umayyds and others for shooting. Hisha`m thought the Ima`m would fail in hitting the target. Thus, he would be able to use the Ima`m's failure as means to degrade the importance of the Ima`m and to mock him before the Syrians. However, the Ima`m shot and hit the target several times. The people had never seen such skillfulness in the world of shooting. Hisha`m was full of anger. So, he decided to murder the Ima`m from that moment.
B. The Ima`m debated with Hisha`m on the affairs of the Ima`mate. The Ima`m defeated Hisha`m. So, the latter was full of malice towards the former.
C. The Ima`m debated with the scholar of the Christians on certain affairs. The Ima`m also defeated the scholar. So, the Syrians were busy talking about the Ima`m's victory over the Christian scholar. We have mentioned these matters in detail in the previous chapters.

Imam al-Baqir(A.S.) designated al-Sadiq(A.S.)
Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, designated his son al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, as an Ima`m. For al-Sa`diq was the pride of the world. He was the pioneer of culture and science in Islam. His father designated him to be an Ima`m and successor and general authority for the community after him. He said to his followers that it was incumbent on them to follow and obey his son.
Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, lauded his son, Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him. He gave an explicit designation for his Ima`mte. Abu` al-Saba`h al-Kina`ni reported. He said: [Abu` Ja'far Mohammed looked towards his son Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq), peace be on him, and said (to us): "Do you see that man? He is one of those of whom Allah, the Mighty and High, said: We wish to grant a favor to those who have been humiliated in the land and We will make them Ima`ms and inheritors.(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 306)
'Ali b. al-Hakam reported on the authority of Ta`hir, who said: [I was with Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him). When Ja'far (al-Sa`diq) approached, Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir) said:] "Here is the best of creatures.(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 306)

His Testamentary Enjoinments
Ima`m Mohammed al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, gave several enjoinments to his son, Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him. Among them are the following:
1. He said: "Ja'far, I give testamentary enjoinments to you (to treat) my followers well." So, Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, replied: "May I be your ransom, I will make them (know their religion so well) that any man among them in the country will not (have to) ask any one (for advice). (Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 306)
He, peace be on him, enjoined his son to spend (money) on them and to take care of their affairs to make them devote themselves to seek knowledge, to record his traditions, and to spread his sciences and morals among the people.
2. He, peace be on him, enjoined his son al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, to shroud him in the cloak in which he used to perform the prayer.(Safwat al-Safwa, vol. 2, p. 63. Ibn al-Wadi, Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 184. Abi al-Fida', Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 214. Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam, vol. 7)
He wanted that to be a truthful witness with Allah for his great worship and his obedience to Him.
3. He endowed some of his money to some female weepers to weep for him for ten years at Mina.(Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 11, p. 62).
The reason for that is that Mina was the greatest center where Moslems gathered, and that there were many female weepers at it. This would make the Moslems ask about the reason for weeping. They would be told that the Umayyads persecuted and killed Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him. So, the Umayyad would be unable to hide the murder of the Ima`m.
As for the text of his testamentary enjoinments, it was reported by Ima`m Abu` 'Abd Allah al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, who said: [When my father was near to death, he said (to me): "Call witnesses for me." I summoned four men from Quraysh, among them Na`fi', retainer of 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar. (My father said:) "Write this testimony which I bequeath (like) Jacob did to his sons: My sons, Allah has chosen the religion for you. So, do not die except as Moslems.
Mohammed b. 'Ali makes this last testimony to Ja'far b. Mohammed. He orders him to shroud him in his cloak in which he used to perform the Friday prayer, to put his turban on him, to make his grave a square, to raise it the height of four fingers above the ground, and to take his shabby clothes away from him at his burial.
Then he said to the witnesses: "Depart, may Allah have mercy on you.
You"Father," I said to him (after they had gone), "what was in this that there had to be witnesses for it?"
"My son," he answered, "I was unwilling for you to be overcome and for it to be said that no testimony had been mad for him. I wanted you to have proof.
(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 307)

To the Highest Paradise
The poison acted quickly on the body of Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him. So, death approached fast. During his last hours, he gathered all his feelings and sentiments, and cleaved to Allah, the Most High. He began reciting the Holy Koran. He asked Allah's forgiveness. While his tongue busy praising Allah, death came to him. So, his great matchless soul ascended to its Creator after it had enlightened the cultural scientific life in Islam. When the Ima`m died, the most wonderful stage of the Islamic message, which provided the Islamic community with the elements of awareness, development, and prosper, ended.

His Preparation (for Burial)
Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, prepared the holy body for burial. He washed it and shrouded it. He was weeping bitter tears for the missing of his father, who was the best person under the sky in knowledge, outstanding merits, and devoutness.

His Burial
The people carried the great body from al-Hamima. They gathered around it. They were shouting: "There is no god but Allah! Allah is Great!" They were greatly moved to touch the coffin of the Ima`m. They were mentioning the laudable and favors of Ima`m Abu Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him.
Then they reached at Baqi' al-Gharqad. They dug a grave alongside the grave of his father, Zayn al-'Abidin, the greatest Ima`m, peace be on him, and besides his great-uncle, Ima`m al-Hasan, the Lord of the Youth of Heaven, peace be on him. Then Ima`m al-Sa`diq buried his father in his final resting place. He buried with him knowledge, clemency, and kindness to people.
The martyrdom of Ima`m Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, was the greatest loss for the Muslims then. For they missed the leader, the pioneer, and the guide, who spared no effort to spread knowledge and cultural awareness among Moslems.
The Holy Ima`m, peace be on him, was martyred at the age of 58.

The Year of his Death
It is famous that Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, died in the year 114A.H.

The Muslims condoled Imam al-Sadiq(A.S.)
The Moslems were full of sadness. So, they hurried to Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, to condole with him on the death of his father. Among the condolers was Sa`lim b. Abi Hafsa, who said:
"I said to my companions: 'Wait for me. For I want to go to Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq) to condole with him on the death of his father.' I went to him and condoled with him and said to him:
'To Allah we belong and to Him is our return. By Allah, the one who used to say: 'Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said,' has passed away. He was not asked about what was between him and Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. I have never seen the like of him."
He Sa`lim added: "Ima`m Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq), peace be on him, kept silent for an hour. Then he turned to his companions and said to them: Allah, the Great and Almighty said: 'Some of My servants give part of a date as alms. So, I will grow (the alms) for them, as they grow the foal.'
Then Sa`lim went out. He admired Ima`m Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq), peace be on him. Hence, he turned to his companions and said to them: "I have not seen (any person) more wonderful than this (Ima`m). We regarded as great Abu` Ja'far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, who used to say without any authority: 'Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said.' Abu` 'Abd Allah (al-Sa`diq), peace be on him, said to me without an authority: 'Allah said.'(Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Amali, p. 125)
Ima`m al-Sa`diq, peace be on him, took his traditions from his fathers, who took their sciences from their grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.

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